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10 Important Lessons From the Prophet ﷺ’S Last Sermon

by in Soul on 10th June, 2024

“Have I conveyed the message?”

In some narrations, the Prophet (ﷺ) repeated this phrase seven times during his last sermon. Each time, the congregation confirmed that the Prophet (ﷺ) had indeed communicated effectively. 

The Prophet (ﷺ) then said after each clarifying question, “O Allah, bear witness.”

Imagine the scene. What came to be known as his (ﷺ)“Farewell Hajj” was also the Hajj of 144,000 other believers. The hujjaj gathered in the Uranah valley of Mount Arafah for what was and still is today, the holiest day of the year. 

Our mother Aisha (may Allah ﷻ be pleased with her) told us that the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “There is no day on which Allah sets free more slaves from Hell than He does on the Day of ‘Arafah.” (Muslim)

For context, Laylat al-Qadr is when the Qur’an was sent down. The day of ‘Arafah is when our religion was completed (Surah al-Ma’idah, verse 3).

So, on a day when everyone is engaged in worship, like du’a (supplication) and dhikr (remembrance), the sermon that the Prophet (ﷺ) gave had to be concise. And while it certainly was, there is no question that one could find endless benefit in it. It is a sermon that we should all revisit every ‘Arafah.

The mount’s name comes from the verb ʿarafa, to know something. In this case, ‘Arafah is where one goes to know their Lord.

As Muslims, we are often asked about our beliefs and behaviours. Sometimes, it can be difficult to highlight which ones are the most important to tell others, and also figure out how to summarise the vastness of this deen to someone else. At the same time, we find that a reminder is beneficial for us first. 

What key points can we take from this sermon to really know our Lord? We hope to convey those points and to follow the instruction of the Prophet (ﷺ) in conveying his message.

1. “O people, your Lord is one and your father Adam is one.” (Musnad Aḥmad 23489)

This is reminiscent of the 112th Quranic chapter, Surah Al-Ikhlas (The Sincerity):

Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “He is Allah—One ˹and Indivisible˺;
Allah—the Sustainer ˹needed by all˺.
He has never had offspring, nor was He born.
And there is none comparable to Him.” (Surah Al-Ikhlas 112:1-4)

This is one of the main messages of Islam. It is a purely monotheistic religion. There are no intermediaries between us and our Lord. He is the God of Adam, Abraham, Jesus, Noah, and other prophets (AS). 

We worship Allah (SWT) exclusively, or at least, we try to. However, have we tried to eliminate the physical and metaphorical idols around us? We pray our salah (prayer) five times a day, but do we maintain that silah (connection) with our Lord throughout the day as well? Our prayers should be dialogues and not to-do’s. Similarly, our fasts should not simply be about depriving ourselves of nourishment, it should be about filling ourselves with “noorishment” – closeness with our Lord.

Will a late night with friends mean a lacklustre fajr? A halaqah at the masjid might be too inconvenient a time, yet we will set multiple alarms for a vacation flight. We say that we cannot engage in more sunnah prayers, but somehow come up with ample time for social media.

It is to be expected that our compasses may guide us through many things in life, school, work, friendships, family, and other relationships. But Allah (SWT) should always be our true North; guiding the way we proceed in this life.

2. “There is no favour of an Arab over a foreigner, nor a foreigner over an Arab, and neither white skin over black skin, nor black skin over white skin, except by righteousness.(Musnad Aḥmad 23489)

This is the most emphasised part of the sermon. Notice the repetition of how race is mentioned. Both contrasting examples are mentioned not once, but twice, in reverse. Despite its revelation taking place in an Arab land and in an Arab tongue, the Arab Messenger (ﷺ) states that the only qualifier that we should differentiate ourselves by is taqwa (God-consciousness).

Surah al-Hujurat (The Chambers) echoes this statement in its thirteenth verse: “O humanity! Indeed, We created you from a male and a female, and made you into peoples and tribes so that you may ˹get to˺ know one another. Surely the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous among you. Allah is truly All-Knowing, All-Aware.

It’s an exceptional reminder, especially at Hajj, when people gather from across the globe. It’s reminiscent of how we’ll be on the Day of Judgement, with nothing to separate our ranks except our good deeds.

But not just in the next life. How many community members pass silent judgments on people who do not look like us in our schools, workplaces, and places of worship? How many of us struggle with parents who are opposed to us being friends, or even potential partners, with those of different backgrounds?

As Muslims, we should try to be active agents of this hadith; celebrating our differences rather than striking them. The Islam of a person is not correlated with their skin colour or language. We never know how we will end up—and the person we judge may just end up being in a higher place than us.

Our belief requires us to actively be anti-racist, including in our fight for justice. We should have the same enthusiasm for Sudan, Palestine and Kashmir. The same du’as that we make for ourselves should also be offered for our Rohingya and Uyghur brothers and sisters and the many Muslims suffering across the globe. We pray together, and insha’Allah, will stay in eternity together.

3. No doubt, your blood and your properties are sacred to one another like the sanctity of this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this town of yours, till the day you meet your Lord. No doubt! (Bukhari 1741)

This statement was preceded by a conversation that the Prophet (ﷺ) had with his congregation:

“Isn’t it the month of Dhul Hijjah?” 

We replied: “Yes! It is.”

He further asked, “What town is this?”

We replied, “Allah and His Apostle know it better.”

He remained silent till we thought that he might give it another name. 

He then said, “Isn’t it the sacred town (of Mecca)?”

We said, “Yes. It is.”

When we put all these pieces together, we learn that a Muslim and what he owns is as sacred as the holiest day of the year in the holiest place. Oftentimes, we get so caught up in our rituals to our Creator that we forget our human responsibilities to His (SWT) creation. Did we help our parents with iftar preparations and clean-up on the way to taraweeh in the masjid? If we have ever been to Umrah, were we conscious of the amount of waste we generated? On our way to pray salah alongside our brothers and sisters, did we smile towards them and make them feel welcome?

Another beautiful hadith discusses this:

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Allah Almighty will say on the Day of Resurrection: O son of Adam, I was sick but you did not visit Me. He will say: My Lord, how can I visit You when You are the Lord of the worlds? Allah will say: Did you not know that My servant was sick and you did not visit him, and had you visited him you would have found Me with him? O son of Adam, I asked you for food but you did not feed Me. He will say: My Lord, how can I feed You when You are the Lord of the worlds? Allah will say: Did you not know that My servant asked you for food but you did not feed him, and had you fed him you would have found Me with him? O son of Adam, I asked you for drink but you did not provide for Me. He will say: My Lord, how can I give You drink when You are the Lord of the worlds? Allah will say: My servant asked you for a drink but you did not provide for him, and had you given it to him you would have found Me with him.” (Muslim 2569)

The dignity of a Muslim is an extension of the Divine, and we should treat it as such.

4. “Truly, the usury of the Era of Ignorance has been laid aside forever. And the first usury I begin with is that which is due to my father’s brother ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib.”

Allah (SWT) says in the Qur’an,

“Those who consume interest will stand ˹on Judgment Day˺ like those driven to madness by Satan’s touch. That is because they say, “Trade is no different than interest.” But Allah has permitted trading and forbidden interest. Whoever refrains—after having received warning from their Lord—may keep their previous gains, and their case is left to Allah. As for those who persist, it is they who will be the residents of the Fire. They will be there forever.” (Surah Al-Baqarah 2:275)

Usury, known as loans with interest, was a common practice in pre-Islamic Arabia. It is unfortunately still commonplace today. Whether you are going back to school or trying to buy a home, interest-based loans appear to be the only path to furthering your future. 

However, the Prophet (ﷺ) explicitly prohibited it, and even went to far as to start with his own family: his (ﷺ) uncle, ‘Abbas, the son of Abdul-Mutallib (Sahih Muslim 1218a). ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) made income off of usury, as well as many others. For the Prophet (ﷺ) to first mention a family member when forbidding something was a culture shock in a tribalistic society. A perfect example of leading by example.

The Prophet (ﷺ) was sent as the messenger to mankind. That includes Arabs, non-Arabs, Christians, Jews, and Muslims—and his (ﷺ) family! We know his (ﷺ) uncle Abu Talib rejected Islam, along with Abu Lahab. It is clear that being a relative of the Prophet (ﷺ), or even proclaiming to be a Muslim, does not exempt you from following the proclamations of Islam.

Aisha reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Follow the right course, be devoted, and give glad tidings. Verily, none of you will enter Paradise by his deeds alone.” They said, “Not even you, O Messenger of Allah?” The Prophet said, “Not even myself, unless Allah grants me His mercy… (Bukhari 6464)

And now, we see many alternatives to usury: subsidised loans, donations, grants, funding, and other scholarships to facilitate this command by Allah (SWT) and His Messenger (ﷺ).

5. “Fear Allah concerning women!” (Sahih Muslim 1218a)

This statement is deeply profound. The Prophet (ﷺ) only has a limited amount of time, not only here at this sermon, but for the remainder of his (ﷺ) life. So what does he (ﷺ) highlight? Treatment of women. He (ﷺ) emphasised that:

  • Men take women in with the security of Allah, 
  • Men have rights with them, given to them by Allah, 
  • But women also have rights upon men—like food and clothing

In many societies, even so-called “progressive” ones, women’s rights are still in need of improvement. Women can pursue an education, but find it harder to obtain a job, or even earn equitable pay. It is also reported  that 1 out of 3 Muslim couples will divorce. Sadly, the top two reasons for women are in-laws and finances. So many instances take place where a woman’s rights in the marriage are not honoured, and Allah (SWT) forbid, there are also cases of abuse, including domestic violence, as well as neglect that exacerbate this.

We should adhere to the words of the Prophet (ﷺ) and recognize that, like all blessings, we should acknowledge that they were given to us by Allah (SWT) . Do we as women also respect the women in our lives? Do we call our mothers, our aunts, our sisters (in our religion and in our families) and assist the female teachers in our community? Just like all other blessings from Him (SWT), we ought to take care of this one too. 

6. “O people: the Devil has despaired of ever being worshipped in this land of yours, though he is content to be obeyed in other works of yours, that you deem to be of little importance.” (Tirmidhi

We may not explicitly worship the Devil, but we can unfortunately follow in his footsteps. And sometimes, the transition is gradual. Our nafl (voluntary) prayers might drain away steadily before our fard (required) ones are gone altogether. So it’s a reminder to be mindful of Satan wherever we may be.

One way we can be mindful of this is to think of the word waswasa (whispers). That’s the Devil’s favourite form of communication. It’s the small steps that take you away from good and towards sin. Before we know it, an addiction might leap up from one small temptation.

Shaytan’s first name was Iblis. The root letters of this word spell out the word for “despair” in Arabic. When we despair in Allah (SWT)’s mercy and help, getting out of a sin or even overcoming a trial seems impossible. But we should remember that nothing is impossible for Allah (SWT) The real One we worship.

7. “O men! the unbelievers indulge in tampering with the calendar in order to make permissible that which Allah forbade, and to prohibit what Allah has made permissible.” 

In Jahiliyah (the period of ignorance before Islam), the tribes would have a practice of postponing months. In the Islamic calendar, there are four sacred months, in which killing is prohibited: Dhul Qidah, Dhul Hijjah, Muharram, and Rajab. The first three are consecutive, and Rajab is isolated from the rest.

This is something for the rest of the Ummah to take note of as well. How many conflicts are there currently ongoing, even in a sacred month like Dhul Hijjah, where Hajj is taking place?

Perhaps inadvertently, this advice also teaches us to be more mindful of the Islamic calendar. We should be aware of when The White Days are every month in order to fast them, and also of significant events that occurred in each month. Too often, we only find ourselves aware of the Islamic calendar only when Ramadan approaches.

Sites like, as well as our local mosques, keep us updated with the Islamic month, as well as significant days within it. It is important to also revisit the Seerah from time to time, to see which significant events occurred when.

8. “O People! just as you regard this month, this day ,this city as sacred ,so regard the life and property of every Muslim a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you.” 

Why would something as technical as inheritance be mentioned in a holy place like Arafah? That is because Islam is a way of life, and inheritance is part of it. Even now, we watch as children try to claim more of their parent’s wealth than they should. 

The Prophet (ﷺ) gave specific guidelines:

  • Every heir should have his share of an estate
  • No heir can accept a special bequest
  • No special bequest can exceed a third of the estate
  • Achild’s lineage is directly through his father
  • Claiming to be descended from someone other than your father is to beckon for a curse, angels, and men

Again, we see an emphasis on the rights of others as well as the rights of Allah (SWT). Have conversations with your elders and local scholars when it comes to writing wills and the division of wealth. Build strong relationships with your siblings and parents that aren’t tied to finances, and encourage one another to be equitable with your wealth.

9. “I have left among you the Book of Allah, and if you hold fast to it, you would never go astray.”

The Qur’an describes itself in many ways. In Surah al-Baqarah, verse 185, it calls itself a “guidance.” In other places, a “light” (Surah An-Nisa 4:174), and a “blessing” (Surah Al-An’am 6:155). 

It guides many people out of Islam into it, and also affirms the faith of those who already believe. There is a reason we dedicate an entire month to it—it allows us to be more aware of our Lord and our purpose in this life. It is a part of our daily lives—not just in Ramadan, or at ‘Arafah, or during weddings.

Have regular time with the Qur’an every day. You do not need to memorise it to engage with it—reading, listening, and even reflecting are sufficient to build a relationship with it.

10. “It is incumbent upon those who are present to convey this information to those who are absent.” (Bukhari)

We owe an immense debt to our pious predecessors, scholars, and translators for preserving this event that occurred over a thousand years ago. It is through their tireless efforts that we learn about what happened on this sacred day. Hence, it is incumbent upon us now, to ensure that we can impart such knowledge for the rest of our lives.

What is also remarkable is that this hadith is similar to another: “Convey from me, even a single verse.” (Bukhari)

It is a stark reminder that we must do our part in being messengers of the Messenger (ﷺ), and practise what he (ﷺ) has preached. Let us be mindful of our rights to one another as well as the duties of our deen.

May we all have the honour of being considered our beloved Prophet (ﷺ)’s  followers!


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Ali, Rida. Palestine and Kashmir Echo the Interconnected Call for Global Freedom. Amaliah.

Hannah Alkadi

Hannah Alkadi

Hannah Alkadi is a Lawful Good Social Media Master, starving writer, cat mom, and total nerd. She is 29 years old and lives in Dallas, TX. Her current project is the revival of her blog, “Social Media Free Sabil Allah,” helping nonprofit and for-profit owners navigate the wild, wild web.